roses
tiburonstudios/getty
Advertisement
Advertisement

How To Grow Roses Organically

Roses grow gloriously in the wild and have been thriving in older gardens for centuries, often with absolutely no care. So why do gardeners, especially organic gardeners, believe roses require so much attention and regular spraying with toxic chemicals that they are not worth growing?

If you love the beauty and fine fragrance of roses, you'll be glad to know that when you give them what they need—plentiful sunshine and air circulation, along with well-drained, fertile soil—you'll discover how easy and rewarding they are to grow. Just follow the steps we’ve outlined below, which cover everything you need to know about how to care for roses, from how to prune roses to different types of roses.

Buying Roses

Success with roses begins with planting varieties suited to your garden’s conditions.

When shopping for roses, you'll see that they are sold either with bare roots (with the soil washed off) or growing in a pot. Bareroot plants are dormant—they have no leaves or flowers. Plant them in early spring, before they start growing. Look for plants labeled "#1" grade—that indicates the highest quality—with at least three thick canes.

Roses in pots are actively growing and can be planted anytime in spring or fall. Whether you choose container or bareroot plants, be sure they have strong, green canes with white pith. The roots should be plentiful and almost as long as the topgrowth.

Roses are often sold "grafted"—that is, the top part with the flowers you want is attached to a stem and roots from a different variety. Grafted roses flower sooner than "own-root" roses, and they can be more vigorous; however, I prefer roses that are grown on their own roots. They come through harsh winters better than grafted plants because they are able to sprout from below the soil surface if they die back. Own-root roses are typically smaller at time of purchase and take longer to get to full size.

Types Of Roses

Reading labels when you're buying a rosebush can seem like learning a new language. But understanding the terminology helps you find the varieties that suit your purposes and conditions.

Floribunda

Bushes that range from 2 to 6 feet tall and equally wide. Most are cold-hardy. They bloom continuously in clusters of medium-size flowers. Many color options. For the flower border or cut flowers. Fragrance varies.

Related: 10 Types Of Roses Gardeners Can’t Live Without

Polyantha

Smaller in flowers and in overall plant size, they are a scaled-down version of floribunda roses.

Hybrid tea

Also called large-flowered roses. Classic florist roses with large blossoms (one per stem) that become pointed toward the center, they range from 3 to 6 feet tall. Some are deliciously fragrant; many aren't. Best for cut flowers, as the plant itself isn't much to look at.

Related: 4 Disease-Resistant Roses You’ll Want For Your Garden

Landscape

A new type bred to be easy to care for and to look great in the landscape. Highly disease- and pest-resistant. Low-growing, with short flower stems that are not suited to bouquets. Continuous bloom spring to fall. Best choice for beginners.

Modern

All varieties bred after 1867, including hybrid teas, floribundas, and polyanthas. Come in both soft and bold colors, and fragrance varies greatly. Most repeat bloom.

Old garden

All varieties that existed before 1867, including China, damask, tea, and noisette types. They tend to have softer colors than modern roses and are often very fragrant. Most bloom once in spring. The types vary in cold-hardiness.

Related: 6 Kinds Of Roses You’ll Definitely Want To Grow

Year Round Rose Care

Since March weather is quite different in Atlanta than it is in Brooklyn (or Denver or San Diego), this calendar is organized by season rather than by month.

LATE WINTER AND SPRING

Prune existing roses and plant new roses in this season. Pruning is essential because it allows sunlight to reach the center and air to circulate around the canes. Steady airflow prevents fungal diseases.

Pruning
Look for swelling leaf buds on the rose canes; don't wait for the leaves to show. Start by cutting out branches that are dead, damaged, or diseased. The next step depends on the type of rose:

Once-flowering roses, which bloom abundantly in spring or early summer and then are finished for the year, need only winter damage removed.

Repeat-flowering shrubs bloom heavily in spring and continue blooming more modestly throughout the summer and fall. Cut out winter damage and cut the rose back by one-third to half of its height. Make these cuts about one-quarter inch above an outward-facing bud. Prune out thin, crossing, and inward-facing canes.

Climbing roses bloom the way repeat-flowering shrubs do but grow canes 6 to 20 feet in length. For climbers, which are typically trained onto arbors or other structures, prune back laterals (stems that grow from existing canes, rather than emerging directly from the base of the plant) to between three and five buds. Don't cut the growth that emerges from the base—you want to encourage those canes to grow. With newly planted climbers, cut out only dead, diseased, or damaged wood for the first three years. Don't shorten any canes until the fourth season.

Rambling roses are similar to climbers but have a more sprawling, relaxed habit. They bloom once a year, and get big—10 to 30 feet big. Retain the strongest old and new growth.

Secure ramblers and climbers by tying the long, sturdy canes to supporting structures.

Related: Rose Pruning 101

Planting
Roses need at least 6 hours of sun each day (with a little early-afternoon shade in really hot climates). Choose a spot with well-drained, fertile soil and consistent air circulation.

Plant bareroot and dormant container roses when you see the forsythia bloom in early spring. By then, the ground has warmed enough for planting.

Dig down 3 feet and replace the soil with amended, organically rich soil. This is especially important if you're planting a new rose in a place where an old rose has grown. Use soil from a rose-free part of your garden (or bring it in), and move the soil you take out to another rose-free area.

Soak bareroot roses in water for 3 hours or so before planting and keep them shaded for a week after. Wait until the danger of frost has passed before planting container roses that have leafed out.

Related: 26 Plants You Should Always Grow Side-By-Side

Watering
At planting, water your roses deeply, and do not let the soil completely dry out until they become established, which means until autumn.

Mulching
Spread 1 or 2 inches of shredded leaves or bark chips around your new roses.

Feeding
For existing roses, cover the soil with an inch of compost, mushroom compost (my favorite), or aged manure.

SUMMER

Pruning
Once-flowering roses. Most bloom on the previous season's growth. Remove old, unproductive canes and spindly new canes after flowering. Do not deadhead (remove faded flowers); it prevents the formation of the attractive fruits known as hips.

Repeat-flowering shrubs. Deadhead all repeat-flowering roses. On plants with flowers that bloom in clusters, cut the entire cluster where the stem joins the cane.

Climbing and rambling roses. Deadhead repeat-flowering climbers. There's no need to deadhead ramblers. Continue training ramblers and climbers onto their supports.

Watering
Water established roses deeply at soil level (don't allow the leaves to get wet) once a week when it hasn't rained; twice a week for roses planted in spring.

Weeding
Remove weeds as necessary, and mulch around the base of your roses to discourage weeds from sprouting.

Feeding
Once-flowering roses. Don't feed them now. The compost or manure you spread each spring is enough for the year.

Repeat-flowering roses. Give these a boost with a dose of liquid fish or kelp. Just don't overdo it. Excessive fertilizer can lead to soft, weak growth that attracts insects.

AUTUMN

Transplanting
Transplant roses in your garden in mid to late autumn. Cut them back to about half their size and move to a properly prepared site (see section on planting roses in spring) quickly, with as little root injury as possible. Water well.

Pruning and training
Continue deadheading repeat bloomers until about six weeks before winter dormancy begins in your region. Tie new growth on climbers and ramblers to supporting structures.

Fertilizing
Stop fertilizing at least six weeks before the average first-frost date in your area.

Winter Pruning
Cut back excessively long canes so that they don't whip around in the wind and rock the roots free of the soil.

Cleanup
Dispose of the fallen rosebush leaves, but not in your compost pile— they may harbor plant diseases.

Cold protection
In freezing climates, after a couple of frosts, mound around the crown of your rose plants with a few inches of soil or lightly shredded bark. Shield vulnerable plants with burlap or protective rose cones. (Here’s how to use loose bark mulch to keep your roses healthy through the winter.)

Rest and dream
Congratulations! Time to relax and start dreaming about next year's show!

Pests And Diseases

If you start with varieties suited to your conditions and plant them in full sun, with fertile soil, steady air circulation, and plenty of water, you've taken the most important steps in preventing problems.

If your roses do suffer an attack, you can rely on the natural balance of your organic garden to minimize the damage. For example, encourage birds to visit your garden in winterThey eat bugs overwintering in soil and on plants. Here are specific treatments for common problems you can use when they are at their worst.

Cane borers

Borers burrow into canes, causing them to die back. Prune dead and dying canes back into green wood.

Japanese beetles

Eliminate Japanese beetles during the grub stage using milky disease spores. Handpick adult beetles early in the morning.

Aphids

Wash aphids off the leaves and stems with a strong spray of water, or spray with organic insecticidal soap. (Read more about how to get rid of aphids naturally)

Mites

Spray canes with horticultural oil.

Fungal infections

Spray compost tea on both sides of the foliage. Always remove any diseased plant material immediately.

Spray with Cornell Mix Fungal Spray
1 tablespoon baking soda
A few drops horticultural oil or Ivory soap
1 gallon water

Combine the ingredients in a gallon jug and fill a spray bottle with the mix. Spray susceptible plants every five days.

These Gardening Experts Nominate The World's 60 Most Fragrant Flowers
Treat your eyes and your nose with any of these plants that release a sweet scent.
Links We Love: Goat CrossFit, Roadkill As Medicine, Tie Dyed Roses And More
What Organic Life editors are reading, watching, and laughing about this week.
5 Unexpectedly Cool Things You Can Do With Your Garden Flowers
Grow these blooms in your garden to harvest homemade beauty products, cocktail bitters, and even cheese.
26 Plants You Should Always Grow Side-By-Side
Companion planting uses one species' advantages to help another.
4 Disease-Resistant Roses You'll Want For Your Garden
Choose roses that are immune to a variety of threats to keep your garden blooming and beautiful all season.
6 Kinds Of Roses You'll Definitely Want To Grow
These new generations are easy to care for and are perfectly suited to the organic culture.
6 Fresh Flowers You Should Never Buy
These options are as bad for the environment as they are pretty.
5 Flowers That Are More Romantic Than Roses
These should be your top picks to surprise your sweetheart.
How To Grow Roses That Are The Envy Of Your Neighborhood
Organic roses can be tricky to care for, but these tips and tricks will keep them healthy and happy.
10 Types Of Roses Gardeners Can't Live Without
Picking the right type for your climate can lead to a happy marriage between organic gardening and fresh, beautiful flowers.
7 Magnificent Public Gardens That Have Gone Organic
These must-visit grounds are known for sustainable growing practices.

Pages