Adding a water feature, such as a small pond, creates a welcome environment for the slug's natural predators: ground beetles, snakes, toads, salamanders, and turtles. Ducks love slugs.
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Slugs live and lay their eggs in warm, wet, dark places, so remove boards, bricks, and other damp debris on the ground. Go out at night, when they are most active, and drown them in a container of soapy water. If touching them is distasteful, wear rubber gloves or pick them up with chopsticks or tweezers. Slugs love the yeast in beer and, like frat boys at a party, willingly throw themselves into it. Beer traps only attract slugs within a few feet, however, and are labor intensive. Another option is to use baits containing nontoxic ferrous phosphate. Copper strips jolt slugs with an electrical charge.
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If all else fails, throw that morning cup of coffee on them. New research from the USDA shows that a 2 percent solution of caffeine kills slugs, while a weaker solution takes away their appetite.
Snails carry coiled shells on their backs, while slugs have no shells. Common species of slugs and snails are 1/8 to 1 inch long. (Banana slugs found in coastal areas stretch from 4 to 6 inches long.) Slugs and snails are gray, tan, green, or black, and some have darker spots or patterns. They leave a characteristic slimy trail of mucus behind. Their eggs are clear, oval, or round and are laid in jellylike masses under stones in the garden.
In our test gardens, we've battled the slimers and tried many different strategies for controlling them. The following tactics work best for us.
Related: 10 Most Destructive Garden Insects And How To Get Rid Of Them
Diatomaceous Earth (DE)
After testing all kinds of slug barriers, Jeff Gillman, author of The Truth About Garden Remedies and professor of horticulture at the University of Minnesota, concluded that DE is the most reliable. "DE is a white powder made from the fossilized remains of diatoms, which are one-celled algae that have a skeleton made of silicon," Gillman says.
"To a slithering slug, this lethal powder is extremely sharp and cuts their undersides, causing dehydration." DE does have to be replenished each time it rains, making it a better choice for climates where there is less frequent precipitation. Buy only untreated diatomaceous earth formulated for garden use, and wear a dust mask when applying it. DE made for swimming pools is chemically altered and not suitable for use in any garden.
Buy it: Diatomaceous Earth, $22, Amazon.com
Related: 10 Beneficial Insects That Actually Keep Nasty Pests Out Of Your Garden
This type of trap works because slugs are attracted to the fermented yeast in beer. In a study by Whitney Cranshaw, Ph.D., professor of entomology at Colorado State University, nonalcoholic Kingsbury Malt Beverage was found to attract the most slugs. Michelob and Budweiser placed second and third out of the 12 beverages tested. We're still waiting for the results from the gardeners' taste test. (In case you also want to drink up, here are 9 healthy reasons to drink beer.)
"Take a shallow container, such as a sour cream or yogurt cup, and bury it so that it is even with the soil level," explains Seattle-based gardening expert Willi Evans Galloway, "Then fill the container with beer to within an inch of the rim. The slugs crawl in and drown." For best results, change the beer every few days.
When a slug crosses a copper barrier, its moist, mucusy body reacts with the copper and the slug receives an electric shock. Copper barriers can be laid flat or pushed into the soil to make a vertical fence around a plant or bed. Start by using 2- to 3-inch strips. This product can be costly, so save it for your most prized plants or where the slugs are congregating. (Read more about 10 things, like copper, that you can clean with a lemon.)
Buy it: Corry's Slug & Snail Copper Tape Barrier, $9, Amazon.com
This nontoxic slug bait (iron phosphate is the active ingredient) is safer than Metaldehyde baits, which can harm pets and wildlife. Sprinkle Sluggo granules around your plants and beds in the evening. Ingesting Sluggo causes slugs to stop feeding and to retreat underground, where they die within three to six days. Galloway tested Sluggo and found that it works well as long as you consistently reapply, say about once a week. She uses it in conjunction with beer traps for better control. In dryer regions, you may need to reapply only every two weeks.
Buy it: Monterey LG6500 Sluggo Slug & Snail Killer, $13, Amazon.com
Slugs love this easy-to-grow legume, and researchers have found that, when this alternative source of food was planted next to beds, slugs were lured toward the sacrificial clover and away from more valuable plants. Resilient (and beautiful), red clover grows in a wide variety of soils. While the clover lasts, this method substantially reduces slug damage. After it fades, cut it down and incorporate it into the soil as nitrogen-rich organic matter.
Related: 8 Weeds You Should Actually Let Grow In Your Yard
Not every gardener enjoys this method, but the results are guaranteed. "I have yet to find a slug control that is more surefire and easy than a daily hand-picking patrol when pressure is high," claims gardener Debbie Leung. (Here are 14 more natural ways to control garden pests.)
In the early morning and early evening during slug season, pluck as many slugs as you can find. Leung sometimes collects 200 in a day. Once you've collected them, cut them in half or drop them in soapy water to kill them. For easier picking, encourage slugs to congregate by laying wooden boards or roofing shingles along garden paths for slugs to hide under.
So which method works best? None of them control slugs 100 percent of the time, but our experience finds that any of the methods combined with hand-picking keeps slugs and their damage to a minimum.