How To Plan A Pretty And Productive Vegetable Garden

With a little planning, your backyard plot can be as nice to look at as it is to eat from.

May 2, 2017
veggie garden
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When I began my initial foray into the world of vegetables, I was a weekend gardener with limited time and no garden education. My only knowledge of vegetable gardening was definitely of the big-rectangle-plot-of-dirt, row-each-of-tomatoes-beans-lettuces school. That was how I thought all vegetable gardens looked: Big. Plain. Rectangular. Aggressively functional. 

(Whether you're starting your first garden or switching to organic, Rodale’s Basic Organic Gardening has all the answers and advice you need.)

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Since then, I've learned that this strictly utilitarian model was a 19th-century invention. It developed as people moved away from rural life and home gardens to the cities, as production became centralized on industrial-size farms, and as machines that worked best when moving straight ahead replaced human labor. Then the whole thing got retranslated back to the backyard.

Related: Why You Should Build A Living Fence By Planting Hedgerows

The older, far more pleasing, approach, which reigned in backyards across the globe as long ago as the pleasure gardens of Babylon and right up through the 18th century, was based on smaller, more intimate plots, often divided into garden "rooms," incorporating a scheme of multiple raised beds planted with a diverse mixture of herbs, vegetables, fruit trees, and flowers. (And while you're planting, keep in mind these 26 plants you should always grow side-by-side.)

Start by brainstorming design

Do you want to create a garden that's as beautiful to look at as it is productive? Then embrace the idea of growing vegetables in a decorative, multiple-part planting within a fenced or walled space. The first step on this journey is to think outside the simple rectanlge and let your mind wander freely over all the other geometric possibilities. Picture an octagonal garden. Or a square one with high trellises or semicircular island beds, or one further divided into pie-wedged beds, or even a quartet of rooms. How about a bunch of smaller plots linked by fruit trees trained into arbor form, chaining across a lawn or encircling a central water feature? (Here's more on which trees are good for your organic garden.)

raised beds
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Raise your beds

Once you've imagined the shape possibilities of your space, consider the dual concepts of "raised" and "multiple" bedding plans as the interior design ideal. Early gardeners, from the Aztecs at Tenochtitlan to the ancient Egyptians to 9th-century Swiss monks, recognized that a bed raised even a scant 6 inches above path level provided infinitely better drainage than a bed built flush with the soil. Gardeners today also find that raised beds heat up faster in spring, adding days (or even weeks) to your growing season. Raised beds allow for far easier soil amendment, too. Build up a bed 12 or 18 inches above path grade, and you can fill it with the ideal mix of organic topsoil and other amendments. And when the soil is at shin level, weeding and harvesting are less of a strain on your back.

Related: How To Build A Simple Raised Bed

Vegetable gardeners across every continent have learned that beds built no broader than 4 to 5 feet, separated by paths, allow you to reach into the middle of each bed without stepping into it. This keeps you from ranging through your seedlings, compacting the soil and crushing plants underfoot. Moreover, you can work with your feet planted in a nice, clean path rather than in the middle of a muddy bed.

planting in garden
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Plant a tapestry

Once you have multiple raised beds around you, you can plant just as you would a decorative flower border. You can select from literally thousands of kinds of vegetables, born in all corners of the globe: some nearly as old as time, others introduced yesterday, in every shape and coloration and savor imaginable. Think about height and texture and leaf form and foliage color. Think of contrast and juxtaposition and vegetables that will reward you with flowers, as well.

I suggest you begin by planting a layer of perennial softscape: a quartet of box balls or a border of boxleaf honeysuckle (Lonicera nitida) to ensure evergreen interest. Then add the "upholstered" plants: the handsome brutes you can rely on all season to fill their space. Corn and tomatoes. Peppers, eggplants, and leeks. Artichokes and cardoons. Celeries and chards. Then the handsome, early-season "furniture": carrots, beets, lettuces. Kales, cabbages, and greens. And the later-season accessories, like beans, okra, squashes, and melons. Then on to the fall crops: more lettuces and brassicas and leafy greens. There is no right answer or right mix, and every year is a new opportunity to trial some winning new cultivar or combination.

Related: Why You Should Always Plant Flowers In Your Vegetable Patch

trellis
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Think about trellises

Finally, many vegetables need your support, which presents yet another chance to elevate your kitchen garden beyond the merely functional. Pole beans, cucumbers, and winter squashes climb tuteurs. Tomatoes grow best with trellising or caging. (Here's how to build a vertical garden with helpful trellises.) 

Height is one of the great aesthetic opportunities of the potager, and all of these forms, from a classic bamboo tepee to an imposing central gazebo, can be visual delights while they enhance your yields by adding vertical growing space and help minimize ugly diseases. In almost every instance, you can see that if you approach essential tasks with an eye on invention and creativity, the results will be as lovely as they are practical.

Related: Grow These 50 Pollen-Rich Plants To Help Your Local Honeybees

5 simple changes to try

Try any of these easy alterations to your vegetable garden, and you'll add to its visual appeal. Apply them all, and your plot will be one of the highlights of next summer's garden club tour.

1. Think outside the rectangle: Rebuild your plots into circles, triangles, or octagons.

2. Frame it finely: Just as the right frame enhances a painting, attractive materials beautify your raised beds. Naturally rot-resistant cedar weathers nicely. Or consider stone or brick to enclose your planting areas.

3. Mix + match: Combine vegetables with flowers, herbs, and shrubs, as well as birdbaths, sundials, or your favorite decorations.

4. Embrace different shapes: Plant in patterns, and your beds become a quilt of colors, shapes, and textures.

5. Be creative with your trellis: You can build an eye-catching structure out of bamboo or look for unique uprights at estate sales and the like.

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