But an annual report titled Gardeners Beware: Bee-Toxic Pesticides Found in "Bee-Friendly" Plants Sold at Garden Centers Nationwide from Friends of the Earth US, Pesticide Action Network, and the Pesticide Research Institute found that home gardens could be poisoning bees just as badly as large farms. The groups bought plants marketed as "bee-friendly" at big-box home-improvement stores in the Washington, DC, San Francisco, and Minneapolis metropolitan areas, and found that 7 out of 13 tested positive for neonicotinoids, pesticides known to be deadly to bees.
Related: 5 Things You’re Doing Every Day That Are Hurting Honeybees
The plants purchased for the report included a number of flowers and vegetables popular among home gardeners who want to attract bees and pollinators to their gardens: tomato and summer squash starts, herbs, pumpkins, gaillardia, daisies, zinnias, and asters. Most samples tested positive for one neonicotinoid but the 2 gaillardia samples each tested positive for 2 types of the pesticide.
Related: 6 Things You Need To Know About Organic Beekeeping Before Starting A Backyard Hive
"The pilot study confirms that many of the plants sold in nurseries and garden stores across the U.S. have been pretreated with systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, making them potentially toxic to pollinators," said Timothy Brown, PhD, of the Pesticide Research Institute, in a statement. "Unfortunately, these pesticides don't break down quickly—they remain in the plants and the soil and can continue to affect pollinators for months to years after the treatment," Brown said.
Agricultural researchers have been sounding the alarm on neonicotinoids for years. The pesticides are systemic, meaning they're absorbed by a plant's roots and then travel into its pollen and nectar, the bees' food. Even if the pesticides exist in levels low enough to not kill bees, the new report states, they can still compromise a bee's immune system, impair its ability to forage, and exacerbate the effects of any other infections or diseases a bee might contract.
Related: 14 Insects You Actually Want To Have In Your Garden
Because these pesticides are commonly used on large agricultural fields, they've been fingered as one of a complex set of factors that cause colony collapse disorder, the mysterious phenomenon that has decimated beehives since 2006. Yet, as this report showed, home gardens could be just as toxic to bees as massive monocrop fields, given that many home and garden centers treat plants with systemic pesticides to kill insects.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) put out restrictions limiting the use of these pesticides announced that the agency has developed new pesticide labels that will sound an alarm on any neonicotinoid pesticide, whether for use in homes or on large farms. The labels state that the use of those pesticides is prohibited anywhere bees are present. However, it's unlikely those labels will show up on plants. The EPA is currently slated to review the risk of neonicotinoid pesticies in 2018.
The Friends of The Earth study shows that in addition to these government measures, large retailers like Home Depot and Lowe's have been making serious and effective efforts to phase these pesticides out of their plants completely. The 2016 report reveals, "that progress is being made towards reducing the use of neonicotinoids in ornamental plants; only 23 percent of plants were found to contain neonicotinoids in 2016, compared with slightly more than 50 percent in 2013 and 2014."
We're thrilled to see this progress. But still, your best move? Go organic. Here's 4 tips to remember to help save the bees.
Buy Organic Seeds
They're prohibited from being treated with pesticides of any sort. And that goes for flowers as well.
Stop Using Pesticides
Even though the EPA's labels and limiting of the pesticides will help protect bees, why risk killing any in the first place? The report lists 55 pesticides sold to consumers that contain active neonicotinoid pesticides toxic to bees. In saving the bees, you'll be saving yourself: The inactive ingredients in pesticide formulations are often more harmful to human health than the active ingredient.
Attract and feed wild bees by growing lots of flowering plants from spring though fall, especially native wildflowers, which attract not only bees but also birds and other wildlife that thrive in your local climate.
Leave Your Yard Alone
Keep at least a part of your landscape uncultivated. Many native bee species are solitary, rather than social, meaning they don't build hives. Some nest in the ground, others, in shrubby, weedy areas. Having some of these on your property provides a natural home for them.