HBCDs haven't undergone very much safety research, but animal studies have found that they can interfere with reproductive systems and mess with the liver and thyroid. While Europeans use them commonly as fabric coatings, 80 to 90 percent of their use in the U.S. is in construction for Styrofoam insulation panels. Just because those insulation panels are behind walls doesn't mean you don't inhale the chemicals with which they're treated, says Arlene Blum, a visiting scholar in chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, and Executive Director of the Green Science Policy Institute. In addition, adds Blum, U.S. manufacturers treat furniture with even worse offenders: either tris (2,3,-dibromopropyl) phosphate, a known cancer-causing agent, or a trademarked mix of four chemicals called Firemaster 500, which she says hasn't been adequately tested for safety. "In the U.S., we the have highest levels of flame retardants in our dust and in our bodies."
Despite the fact they've been in use since 1980, there's little evidence that these chemicals are making a difference in the number of fires that take place. In fact, Blum says, "[chemical] flame retardants aren't very useful in reducing fire hazards because they slow fires by just a few seconds."
There's no federal law that requires furniture be flame-retardant, so you can avoid the unknown and toxic side effects of chemicals by:
- Avoiding California flame-retardant guidelines. California has the strictest laws around flame retardants in the country, and they include not only mattresses but also furniture and baby products. Check the label and avoid products that comply with California's fire-safety standards.
- Choosing wool and organic cotton. Flame-retardant chemicals make up 5 percent of the weight of polyurethane foam, the petroleum-based fill used in virtually every sofa, loveseat, and club chair made today. Furniture made with wool or organic cotton furniture is free of hazardous chemicals.
- Cleaning thoroughly and often. Vacuuming both your floors and your furniture regularly will help reduce your exposure to hazardous flame retardants, as will damp-mopping your furniture. Look for a vacuum with a HEPA filter to prevent dust from being spewed back into the air.
- Maintaining your smoke detectors. "Dealing with the source of an ignition is more effective than treating everything with chemicals," says Blum. Part of that includes making sure you have a properly working smoke detector with charged batteries. Replace your detector's batteries every six months (daylight savings time is usually an easy reminder to do so).