The first step, of course, is to figure out if you have what it takes to raise chickens. If you do, and you understand the ins and outs of raising backyard chickens, it's time to figure out which breeds might work best for you. (You can order chickens from your local feed mill, or from MyPetChicken.com, a site with additional information on choosing breeds.) If you can, Heinrichs suggests attending poultry shows to see different breeds, and talking to breeders to make sure the birds you get are from a flock that meets the standards you are looking to enjoy in your flock. But be warned, the decision isn't just a matter of adding up the pros and cons. "Almost certainly, once you have decided that you want chickens, you will see the birds you can’t live without," Heinrichs says. "That’s the breed for you."
If you want the best-looking chickens in the neighborhood…
|Black Cochin. Photo courtesy of Corallina Breuer|
If you're solely into looks, you might gravitate to heavily feathered giants like Cochins or Langshans for their eye-catching beauty. "The Sultan, with its feathery head, covered with a full crest, muff, and beard, feathery legs, and five toes, was bred entirely as a decorative breed," says Heinrichs, who notes that Sultan hens are often good egg layers, too. Naked Neck chickens have about half the feathers compared to other breeds, with that distinctive naked neck that has made some people think they are related to turkeys. Frizzles, with curly feathers, occur in all breeds, but are most often seen in Cochins, an already soft-feathered breed.
"Crested breeds, the Polish and Houdan, with that audacious mop of feathers on top of the head, always get lots of attention," says Heinrichs. "Both are also good producers."
If it's all about the eggs…
|White Leghorn||Leghorns and Anconas are known for egg laying. Australorps, an Australian Black Orpington, was developed for egg production. "My friend, Charles Everett, secretary treasurer of the Society for Preservation of Poultry Antiquities, calls his Cubalayas egg-laying machines," says Heinrichs. "Another friend advocates for Icelandics, a non-standard breed. Chanteclers were developed for Canada’s cold climate and lay through winter’s short, dark days," she adds. Most chickens slow down, and then stop laying entirely during the winter months.|
Also noteworthy: Barnevelders lay dark brown eggs, and Marans' eggs can be very dark, chocolate brown. They don't actually taste like chocolate—unfortunately—but "it makes it easy to find the bits of shell on a hard-boiled egg," says Heinrichs.
If it's all about the meat…
|Light Brahma (left) and Naked Neck (right). Photo courtesy of Corallina Breuer|
Not everyone raises chickens for the eggs or the company. And let's face it, even if they end up on your dinner table, your backyard birds will have much a happier life than the anonymous cluckers that come in a KFC bucket. There are many choices if you're looking for hearty portion sizes. "The Cornish is the basis for the fast-growing industrial chicken, and when you look at them you can see why," says Heinrichs. "They look like the football players of the chicken world, with full breasts and large drumsticks." Jersey Giants were developed as a large meat breed, with adult roosters weighing 13 pounds or more, says Heinrichs, who also notes that Brahmas and Cochins are large meat breeds. Crevecouers and Houdans are old French breeds with good size, eight pounds for a rooster, and renowned for their flavor. "Sussex and Orpingtons have graced many tables," Heinrichs adds.
That said, size isn’t everything. The black skin and black bones of small two-and-a-half pound Silkies make them the breed of choice for Chinese medicinal chicken dishes. (Don't tell Mo!)
If you can't make up your mind…
Go ahead, mix and match. Chicks from different breeds will get along just fine if they grow up together (as you can see on the Rodale.com chicken cam. "Conventional advice suggests that you focus on a single breed, but many fanciers can’t choose a Polish over a Dorking, and get more than one," says Heinrichs. "They are your chickens. Enjoy them."
For more information on raising backyard chickens, and to see beautiful photos of heritage-breed chicks, hens, and roosters, pick up the June/July 2010 issue of Organic Gardening magazine and read the cover story, "Happy Hens." Also from OrganicGardening.com, see: Frequently Raised Objections to Backyard Hens.