Rugosa roses—selections and hybrids of the species Rosa rugosa—are recognized by their distinctively wrinkled (rugose) foliage. While most rose foliage is smooth (if it's not blighted by black spot, mildew, or other diseases), rugosa foliage is heavily textured and impervious to almost all of the usual ailments that affect roses. The leathery leaves of most rugosa varieties transition in fall to golden yellow, burgundy, burnt orange, russet, or a combination of colors—an uncommon trait among roses. The brilliance of fall foliage depends in part on the variety, but weather conditions also play a role and can alter the colors from year to year.
You may already be familiar with rugosa roses from their decorative hips. Rose hips are seed capsules that are formed after the bloom is spent. While some roses are sterile and cannot set hips, many rugosas produce large and colorful hips; the cultivars 'Hansa', 'Frau Dagmar Hartopp', and 'Scabrosa' are standouts. Hips may be shaded deep cherry through tomato red, yellow, or apricot. To obtain more flowers through the summer months, clip the spent blooms from the shrubs at the sacrifice of the first or second crop of hips. But be sure to stop deadheading in late summer to let hips form in the fall, when they will combine with the noted fall foliage for a spectacular display.
Rose hips provide eight times the vitamin C of oranges, according to the USDA National Nutrient Database. They can be used to make jam or jelly or to flavor tea; in Sweden, they are used to flavor soup. Although I have not tasted my rugosa hips (I leave them on the shrubs for the maximum amount of color), several gardeners report detecting a flavor similar to that of apples, unlike the more metallic taste of hips from other rose species.
Care for rugosa roses could not be easier, as they do not require particular soil conditions. Choose a sunny site in the garden with 6 hours or more of direct sun, and you will be rewarded with plenty of blooms.
Rugosas do not have to be sprayed to prevent black spot and other foliar diseases or to keep away the usual insects that prey on roses. In fact, most sprays formulated for other types of roses will cause rugosas to drop their foliage. The only spray I use in my garden is Safer Insect Killing Soap to control tiny green sawfly larvae, also called rose slugs, which skeletonize leaves. But there have been years when I have been too busy to spray my rugosas, and the roses have done fine, although they may have looked a little the worse for wear in June, when these pests seem to be at their strongest. And fertilizing is not a requirement for these effortless shrubs. I sometimes apply an organic water-soluble fertilizer before the big display of blooms in June, but you by no means need to do this. There have been seasons when I never fertilized, and I was still rewarded with many blooms and healthy roses.
If you have a garden near the sea, where most roses do not do well because of wind and salt spray, do not despair. Rugosas survive and even thrive in coastal conditions. Their tolerance for salt also helps them survive in parking strips close to the street where plants are apt to get a dose of road salt in winter.
Remarkable winter hardiness has made rugosas popular among northern gardeners. As Rosa rugosa is native to cold coastal areas of China, Japan, and Manchuria, many of its hybrids—including several bred in Canada—have the fortitude to survive winters as far north as USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 2. As a rule, the hardiest rugosas are those with white, pink, or red blooms. Rugosas with yellow ('Agnes'), peach ('Vanguard' or 'Dr. Eckener'), or bicolor flowers ('Rugelda') are less hardy, and northern gardeners will have more winter kill to remove on these varieties in spring. Also, if you are wondering about the hardiness of rugosas with French names, many well-known varieties were developed in France around 1900 by Cochet-Cochet, Gravereaux, and other companies. Don't let the French names put you off these rugosas, as I have found them to be as hardy as those developed in Canada.
Recommended Rugosa Roses
- Rosa rugosa var. alba. Single pure white blooms with typical spicy fragrance, followed by orange hips; almost always in bloom.
- 'Basye's Purple'. Striking single wine red blooms with purple stamens; unusual dark purple canes.
- 'Blanc Double de Coubert'. Double sparkling white blooms; rich, somewhat fruity perfume.
- 'Fimbriata'. Small semidouble flowers, mainly white with a pale pink blush; the petals are fringed like a dianthus blossom.
- 'Jens Munk'. Semidouble rich pink flowers; a hardy Canadian rose.
- 'Henry Hudson'. Semidouble white blooms from pink buds; a small shrub rose.
- 'Martin Frobisher'. Pale pink double flowers; another Canadian rose, striking in winter with purple canes.
- 'Moore's Striped Rugosa'. Double blooms, raspberry purple striped with white; harder to locate in nurseries but well worth the effort.
- 'Mrs. Doreen Pike'. Warm pink blooms packed with frilly petals; developed by David Austin.
- 'Rose à Parfum de l'Hay'. Semidouble crimson-purple flowers; one of the most fragrant roses ever produced.
- 'Souvenir de Philémon Cochet'. Fully double blooms are packed with pristine white, ruffled petals, sometimes with a blush of pale pink; intoxicating scent.
- 'Thérèse Bugnet'. Double rose-red blooms fading to pink; very hardy with colorful red canes and a sweet scent.
- 'Topaz Jewel'. Semidouble light yellow blooms; a smaller shrub than many other rugosas.