Plant A Native Tree Or Shrub
"Everyone can feed birds through the habitat they create," says Steven Saffier, coordinator of Audubon at Home for Audubon Pennsylvania. Although we've been taught to deter insects at all costs, many programs, such as Audubon at Home, are offering a different take: All native insects are beneficial, and part of an incredible food web. "The best way to invite insects is to use native plants in the landscape," Saffier says. "Many of these plants also feed birds with fruit, seeds, catkins, buds, and other parts of the plant."
Fall is the perfect time to plant native trees, shrubs, and flowers. That's because temperatures are lower and moisture is more available. Though the visible part of the tree might not look alive during the cold months, rest assured that below the ground, roots are developing and establishing themselves. This time of year, plant late-fruiting trees and shrubs such as dogwoods, hollies, cedars, and native apple species. "For the rest of winter, conifers such as pines and junipers provide important cover from winds and winter storms. Planted in the right place, these plants can also save energy in the house by blocking prevailing winds."
Related: Ten Herbs To Grow Inside All Year Long
Make Oaks Multiply
For wildlife value, oak trees are second to none. "If you already have an oak or your neighbor is affable, collect some acorns and plant them outside in starter pots—protected from deer and squirrels—or bring them in the house and refrigerate them until spring," Saffier suggests. "Then, grow your own baby oaks, and share with friends and neighbors."
Construct A Stick And Leaf Pile
We're focusing on birds, but as mentioned above, bugs are a huge part of the equation when it comes to keeping birds alive and well. "Leaf litter and stick piles are the places where many insects overwinter, and the birds know this," says Saffier. "They will search these resources in fall and winter looking for insect eggs, pupating butterflies, and insect larvae." Birds like sparrows and juncos will work overtime, performing bug egg cleanup duty on your pile.
Let Snags Stand
That dead tree you've been meaning to cut down in your yard? If you can leave the tree, or part of it, safely standing (as in, it's not in danger of falling on a building or onto someone—talk to a landscaper or arborist), it will lure birds to cavity shelters, and provide a place to snag some bugs.
Delight In Dead Wood
And if you must cut a dead tree down, save some of the dead wood, suggests Roth. In her new book, she suggests taking a dead piece of wood 7 to 8 inches in diameter, and setting it upright in a natural spot, perhaps planting some ferns around it, to draw birds. This not only looks pretty, but it will also draw thrushes, towhees, and other "woodsy" birds to check out your display. She suggests also using dead wood as a free feeder. Dig a hole in the ground to vertically secure the piece of wood in the ground (in an area free of cats), and then spread nut butters or suet right onto the bark or bare wood. Additionally, leave your dead flower garden standing. If you think a garden full of dried-up, dead plants is ugly, you'll likely change your mind when you start noticing nuthatches, titmice, and chickadees scouring the branches for insect and spider eggs, or you see cardinals and goldfinches perching on stems and eating seeds from the plants.
Plants such as rudbeckia, sunflowers, asters, and others that hang onto their seeds through the fall (and sometimes winter) are particularly good for goldfinches and siskins. However, native plants that drop their seeds are also valuable to the greater number of birds that will search the ground for this seed source. They are very adept at finding tiny seeds that would be virtually invisible to us. Late-flowering native wildflowers (the kinds vary in each region) provide nectar to lingering pollinators (bees, beetles, flies, and so forth), which will in turn, feed birds like migratory fall warblers that hunt for insects on their way south.
Related: Why Winter Spinach Tastes Better
Go Soft On Bird Food
Since new types of birds are resorting to making our backyards their restaurants of survival, we need to provide them with what they need. Roth explains that orioles, tanagers, thrushes, thrashers, wrens, cedar waxwings, vireos, and wood warblers of several species are soft-food eaters, and they crave things like suet and peanut butter or other fat-based products, as well as mealworms and fresh and dried fruit. "All the more reason to broaden your feeder menu, plant more berry bushes, and keep your hands off the pesticide bottle: These birds are insect eaters, big time," says Roth.
"A feeding station stocked with a variety of foods and feeder types draws more birds of more kinds than just sunflower, millet, and suet will," Roth says. She suggests stocking up birdseed of various kinds, including black oil sunflower, millet, and niger; nuts; and specialty mixes containing fruit or nuts. Set out a variety of feeder styles in your yard: trays, hoppers, tubes, suet cages, and log feeders. Keep the birdbath full and invest in a heater or a heated bath model for winter, because water is a big draw all year round.
Stay Stocked During Storms
Storms may bring some of the most spectacular bird feeder sightings you've ever encountered. "Fox sparrows, towhees, dick sissels, native sparrows of a dozen species, horned larks, meadowlarks, and all kinds of birds that may not usually visit your feeder may show up to get a helping hand," says Roth. "And if it’s an untimely, early-fall or late-spring snow or ice storm, you may see neotropical migrants that got caught in it, such as tanagers, orioles, vireos, wood warblers, and others." Roth even encountered a very unexpected feeder guest one year—a great blue heron. "It was scarfing down seed with that monster beak while standing at the wooden tray mounted on a three-foot-tall post—just his size," she says. What draws them in? In winter, it’s food—abundant food, easy access, a variety of foods to suit every taste (which is why suet and other soft foods are important, since many birds don’t eat seeds). Just like restaurants, feeding areas that draw a crowd will attract more customers. "The presence of your feeder regulars advertises your feeder to any hungry bird that may be flying over."