“It is a new threat,” says Jeff Pettis, entomologist at the USDA Bee Research Laboratory. “Ten years ago, almost all pesticides were sprayed or dusted topically. Bees only came in contact with drift when they landed on a plant. This new class of pesticide can be expressed in the nectar and the pollen.” While symptoms of neonicotinoid poisoning in honeybees look strikingly similar to CCD (memory loss, navigation disruption, paralysis, and death), Pettis says it is a mistake to lay blame on a single cause. Researchers continue to study the complex interactions that could be causing the bee die-offs.