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1. Preheat a grill pan or cast-iron skillet on medium high. Halve the bananas lengthwise, being sure to leave each half in the peel. Coat the exposed banana flesh with the brown sugar, using your fingers to press the sugar in. When the skillet or grill pan is hot, place the bananas in the pan, cut side down. Cook them until the surface caramelizes to a deep brown, about 3 minutes.
2. Let the bananas cool briefly, carefully remove the peels, and place each piece in the bottom of a rocks glass or a small bowl. (You can break the pieces in half if that works better.) Top each portion of banana with a scoop of ice cream along with equally divided portions of warmed chocolate sauce and a sprinkling of chopped peanuts.